Internet Of Things.

Carlos Alvarez
35 min readNov 25, 2019


What is IOT?

Internet evolved in a way we would never have imagined. At first, the progress was slowly. Today, innovation and communication occur at high speed.

Since its humble beginning as Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) in 1969, which interconnected a few sites, today it is predicted that the Internet will interconnect 50 billion objects by 2020. Currently, the Internet provides global connections that make it possible for There is web browsing, social media and smart mobile devices.

Internet Evolution

The evolution of the Internet experienced four distinctive phases Each phase has a deeper effect on business and society than the previous phase. Connectivity, Networked Economy, Collaborative Experiences, and the Internet of Everything.

Connectivity. DIgitalize access to information

The first phase began 20 years ago and is called connectivity, email, web browsing and content search was just the beginning.

Networked Economy digitize the business process

The second phase began at the end of the decade of the 90s and it was the phase of the interconnected economy, that was the beginning of electronic commerce and digitally connected supply chains, changed the way we shop and that companies reach New markets.Collaborative Experiences. DIgitalizar las interacciones empresariales sociales.

The third phase began in the early 2000s and is known as the phase of cooperative experiences, this phase is governed by the wide use of social media, mobility and video services and cloud computing, this phase completely transformed the world of work.

Internet of Everything. DIgitalize the world by connecting people and things.

The current phase is called the Internet of everything. In this phase people, processes, data and objects are connected, which transforms information into actions that create new capabilities, more valuable experiences and unprecedented opportunities.

Internet Maps

In practice, the Internet is basically a network of networks.
Each of us connects to the Internet through a physical cable or wireless media. Under this network of networks, lies a true backbone network of connections that bring the world closer to our personal computing devices.

Although in the illustration, the world traffic map is very simplified, it describes the connection between countries and continents. Click on this link to see a TeleGeography map with submarine cable locations.

After opening the TeleGeography map, click on any wire on the map to highlight it and see the points where it connects to the earth’s surface. (You can also select any cable from the list to the right of the map).

TRnasicion a internet de las cosas.

Pillars of the IOT

People, processes, data and objects

IoT incorporates four pillars to make network connections more important and valuable than ever: people, processes, data and objects. The information on these connections gives rise to decisions and actions that create new capabilities, more valuable experiences and an unprecedented economic opportunity for people, businesses and countries.

IoT interactions

The interactions between the elements of the four pillars create a wealth of new information. The pillars interact in a way that establishes three main connections in the IoT environment: people who communicate with people (P2P), machines that communicate with people (M2P) and machines that communicate with machines (M2M).

Hyperconscious, predictive and agile

What does “be ready for IoT” mean? “Being ready for IoT” means that there are three essential attributes:

  • Hyperconsciousness: sensors can capture real-time data about products.
  • Ability to predict: new types of data analysis tools allow an organization to estimate future trends and behaviors.
  • Agility: predictions, which are increasingly accurate, allow organizations to be more receptive and flexible to emerging market trends.

If these three attributes are combined, organizations can create, communicate and deliver their offers in a better way.

IoT and industries

For organizations to understand the potential value of IoT, they must focus on the capabilities that IoT provides that benefit them most. This may vary according to different industries.

The next showing the five core priorities of an organization that are affected by IoT: Customer Experience, Innovation, Employee Productivity, Asset Utilization, and Supply.

Networks are the basis of IoT

50 billion objects provide billions of gigabytes of data. How can they work together to improve our decision making and interactions and thus improve our lives and businesses? The networks we use daily are those that allow these connections. These networks provide the basis for the Internet and, ultimately, for IoT.

Networks continue to evolve

The methods we use to communicate continue to evolve. While in the past we limited ourselves to interact face to face, advances in technology significantly extended the scope of communications. From cave paintings to printing, radio, television and telepresence, each new development improved our ability to communicate with others.

Networks of various sizes

Networks make up the basis of IoT. There are networks of all sizes. They can range from simple networks, composed of two computers, to networks that connect millions of devices.
Simple home networks allow you to share resources, such as printers, documents, images and music, among some local PCs.
In companies and large organizations, networks can provide products and services to customers through their Internet connection. Networks can also be used on an even larger scale to provide consolidation, storage and access to information on network servers. The networks allow the sending of email, instant messaging and collaboration between employees. Also, the network allows connectivity to new places, which gives more value to machines in industrial environments.
Internet is the most extensive network that exists. In fact, the term Internet means “network of networks.” The Internet is literally a collection of interconnected private and public networks. Typically, business networks, small offices and even home networks provide a shared Internet connection.

Network Components

The route that takes a message from origin to destination can be as simple as a single cable that connects a computer to another or as complex as a network that literally covers the world. This network infrastructure is the platform that supports the network. It provides the stable and reliable channel through which communications occur.

Devices and media are the physical elements, or hardware, of the network. Typically, the hardware consists of the visible components of the network platform, such as a laptop, a PC, a switch, a router, a wireless access point or the wiring used to connect those devices. Sometimes, some components may not be visible. In the case of wireless media, messages are transmitted through the air by invisible radio frequencies or infrared waves.

Network components are used to provide services and processes, which are communication programs, called “software”, that run on networked devices. A network service provides information in response to a request. The services include many of the common network applications that people use every day, such as email hosting and web hosting services. The processes provide the functionality that directs and moves messages across the network. The processes are less obvious to us, but they are critical to the operation of the networks.

Final devices

The network devices that people are most familiar with are called “end devices.” All computers connected to a network that participate directly in network communications are classified as hosts. These devices form the interface between users and the underlying communication network.

The following are some examples of end devices:
Computers (workstations, laptops, file servers and web servers)
Network printers
VoIP phones
TelePresence terminals
Security cameras
Mobile portable devices (smartphones, tablet PCs, PDA and wireless debit and credit card readers, and barcode scanners)
Sensors, such as thermometers, scales and other devices that will connect to IoT

The end devices are the origin or destination of the data transmitted through the network. Click on figure 1 to see an animation of an IP packet that is sent from one end device to another. To distinguish one end device from another, each end device in the network is identified by an address. When an end device initiates a communication, it uses the address of the destination end device to specify where the message should be sent.

A server is an end device with installed software that allows you to provide information, such as email or web pages, to other end devices on the network. For example, a server requires web server software to provide web services to the network.

A client is an end device with software installed that allows you to request and display information obtained from a server. A web browser, such as Internet Explorer, is an example of client software. In Figure 2, click on the different clients and servers to get a brief description of each one.

Intermediary network devices

Intermediary devices interconnect end devices. These devices provide connectivity and operate behind the scenes to ensure data flows through the network. Intermediary devices connect individual hosts to the network and can connect several individual networks to form an internetwork.

The following are examples of intermediary network devices:
Switches and wireless access points (network access)
Routers (internetworking)
Firewalls (security)

Data management as they flow through the network is also a function of intermediary devices. Click Play to see an animation of the function of intermediary devices. These devices use the destination host address, together with information on the network interconnections, to determine the route that messages must take through the network.

The processes that run on intermediary network devices perform the following functions:
Regenerate and transmit the data signals.
Keep information about the routes that exist through the network and internetwork.
Notify other devices of errors and communication failures.
Direct the data by alternative routes when there is a link failure.
Classify and direct messages according to service quality priorities (QoS).
Allow or deny data flow according to security settings.

Network media

Communication through the network is transmitted by means, such as a cable or by air. The medium facilitates communication from origin to destination.

Modern networks mainly use three types of means to interconnect devices and provide the route by which data can be transmitted. As shown in the illustration, these means are as follows:

  • Metallic wires inside cables
    Glass or plastic fibers (fiber optic cable)
    Wireless transmission
  • The coding of the signal that must be performed for the message to be transmitted is different for each type of medium. In metallic wires, the data is encoded in electrical pulses that match specific patterns. Fiber optic transmissions depend on pulses of light, at intervals of visible or infrared light. In wireless transmissions, electromagnetic wave patterns show the different bit values.
    Different types of network media have different characteristics and benefits. Not all network media have the same characteristics nor are they suitable for the same purposes. The criteria for choosing network media are the following:
    The distance by which the media can carry a signal correctly
    The environment in which the media will be installed
    The amount of data and the speed at which it should be transmitted
    The cost of the means and the installation

Types of networks

Network infrastructures can vary greatly in the following aspects:
The size of the area they cover.
The number of connected users.
The quantity and types of services available.

In the illustration, two of the most common types of network infrastructure are shown:

  • Local Area Network (LAN): A network infrastructure that provides access to end users and devices in a limited area, such as a home, a school, an office building or a campus. It provides high-speed bandwidth to internal end devices and intermediary devices.
  • Wide area network (WAN): a network infrastructure that interconnects LANs across broad geographic areas, such as cities, states, provinces, countries and continents. WANs usually belong to an autonomous organization, such as a company or a government. Generally, WANs provide link speeds between LAN networks that are lower than link speeds within a LAN.

What are the objects?

At present, the pillar of objects, highlighted in the illustration, consists mainly of several types of computers and traditional computing devices, such as desktops, laptops, smartphones, tablet PCs, large computers and computer clusters. However, IdC includes all types of objects, including objects and devices that were not traditionally connected. In fact, Cisco estimates that, at some point in the future, 99% of physical objects will be connected.

These objects contain integrated technology to interact with internal servers and with the external environment. In addition, they have a network connection capability and can communicate through an available, reliable and secure network platform. However, IdC refers to a single technological transition: the ability to connect objects that were not connected before, so that they can communicate over the network.

When objects have detection and communication capabilities, data availability can change the way and place where decisions are made, who makes them and the processes that people and companies use to make those decisions. IoT is based on the connections between people, processes, data and objects. These are the four pillars of IoT, as shown in the illustration. However, IoT has nothing to do with the set of these four dimensions in isolation; each amplifies the capabilities of the other three. The true power of IoT arises at the intersection of all these elements.

Common devices

Internet connects several computing devices in addition to desktop and laptop computers. Around you, there are devices with which you may interact every day and that are also connected to the Internet.

For example, day by day people are increasingly using mobile devices to communicate and perform daily tasks, such as checking the weather forecast or conducting online banking.

In the future, many of the objects in your home may also have an Internet connection so that they can be remotely controlled and configured.

Outside your home, in the outside world, there are also many connected devices that provide comfort and useful and even fundamental information.

How many of these devices do you use daily?

Device connection

For IoT to work, all devices that are part of the desired IoT solution must connect to each other in order for them to communicate. There are two ways to connect devices: with cables or wirelessly.

In most cases, connecting devices to each other using cables is too expensive or cumbersome to be practical. For this reason, most devices must be able to send and receive data wirelessly.

There are many different types of wireless communication. The most common types of wireless communication are Wi-Fi, mobile phone networks, Bluetooth and nearby data transmission (NFC). Some devices, such as smartphones and tablet PCs, use a combination of wireless communication methods to connect to different devices.

Electronic devices that do not connect to the Internet

According to the Internet World Stats website (, until June 2012, according to statistics there were approximately 2400 million Internet users. This is only 34% of the total world population.

In 2012, the number of devices connected to the Internet exceeded the world’s population. This includes traditional computing devices and mobile devices, as well as new industrial and consumer devices that we consider “objects.”

Although it may appear that there are too many devices connected to the Internet, this represents less than 1% of the objects that could be connected. Among the devices that are currently not connected, there are microwaves, alarm clocks and lighting systems.


Sensors are a way of obtaining data from devices that are not computers. They convert the physical aspects of our environment into electrical signals that computers can process. Some examples of this are soil moisture sensors, air temperature sensors, radiation sensors and motion sensors. All types of sensors play an important role in connecting devices that, traditionally, were not connected to IoT.


There is a popular type of sensor that uses radio frequency identification (RFID). The RFID uses the radio frequency electromagnetic fields to communicate information between small coded tags (RFID tags) and an RFID reader. In general, RFID tags are used to identify the wearer, like a pet, and track it. Because the labels are small, they can be attached to virtually any item, including clothes and money. Some RFID tags do not use batteries. The energy that the tag needs to transmit the information is obtained from electromagnetic signals sent by the RFID tag reader. The tag receives this signal and uses some of the energy in it to send the response.

The models shown in the illustration have a transmission range of a few meters, while other RFID tags have a battery and function as a beacon that can transmit information at all times. This type of RFID tags generally has a range of a few hundred meters. Unlike the barcode, the RFID depends on the radio frequency; therefore, it does not require a line of sight to function.

Due to their flexibility and low power requirements, RFID tags are an excellent way to connect a non-computer device to an IoT solution by providing information to an RFID reader device. For example, today it is common for car factories to place RFID tags on bodies. This allows better tracking of each vehicle on the assembly line.

The first generation of RFID tags was designed for “single writing and many readings.” This means that they can be programmed at the factory only once, but cannot be modified outside it. The newer RFID tags are designed for “many writes and many readings”, and have integrated circuits that can last between 40 and 50 years, and that can be written more than 100,000 times. These tags can effectively store the complete history of the item to which they are connected, such as manufacturing date, location tracking history, cycle of various services and the owner.Controladores

The sensors can be programmed to take measurements, translate that data into signals and then send them to a main device called a “controller.” The controller is responsible for obtaining the sensor data and provides an Internet connection. Controllers may have the ability to make immediate decisions or they can send data to a more powerful computer for analysis. This more powerful computer can be on the same LAN as the controller, or it can only be accessible through an Internet connection.

To access the Internet and then the most powerful computers in the data center shown in the illustration, the controller first sends the data to a local router. This router communicates the local network with the Internet and can forward data between them.Administración de datos

In general, computers do not have the contextual awareness and intuition of human beings. Therefore, it is important to consider the following two data states: structured and unstructured.

Structured data

Structured data are those that are entered and maintained in fixed fields within a file or record. Computers enter, classify, query and analyze structured data with ease. For example, when you send your name, address and billing information to a website, you create structured data. The structure requires the use of a certain format for the introduction of the data, in order to minimize errors and make it easier for the computer to interpret them. Figure 1 represents the storage of different types of data in specific locations so that computer programs can locate them.

Unstructured data

Unstructured data lacks the organization of structured data; They are raw data. They do not have the structure that identifies the value of the data. There is no fixed method to enter or group unstructured data and then analyze them. Some examples of unstructured data include the content of photos and audio and video files. Figure 2 shows Rafael’s School of Athens. You cannot search for content, such as figures and elements of the painting, because it has no structure.

Structured and unstructured data are valuable resources for people, organizations, industries and governments. Like other resources, the information collected from structured and unstructured data has a measurable value. However, the value of that data may increase or decrease, depending on how they are administered. Even the best data loses value over time.

It is important that organizations take into account all types of data (structured, unstructured and semi-structured) and determine how to format them so that they can be managed and analyzed.

To understand data management, it is important to understand concepts such as data storage and data transport.

More connections = more data

Why so much concern for the data? The volume of data that, a decade ago, was produced in a year, is now produced in a week. That equates to the production of more than 20 exabytes of data per week. As more unconnected objects connect, the data continues to grow exponentially.

M2M connections

Machine-to-machine (M2M) connections take place when data is transferred from one machine or “object” to another through a network. The machines include sensors, robots, computers and mobile devices. These M2M connections are often called “Internet of things.”

An example of M2M is a connected car that emits a signal to inform that a driver is almost home, which tells the home network to adjust the temperature and lighting of the home.

Connections P2P

Person-to-person (P2P) connections take place when information is transferred from one person to another. P2P connections are increasingly produced through video, mobile devices and social networks. Frequently, these P2P connections are called “collaboration.”

As shown in the illustration, the highest IoT value is obtained when the process facilitates the integration of the M2M, M2P and P2P connections.

Case study of property management

How can the combination of people, processes, data and objects create value through a secure platform? Consider property management and owners, as shown in the illustration.
In a commercial real estate market, property management companies must seek new ways to differentiate themselves from their competitors by offering unique services to their tenants, and increase their income at the same time.
In one example, a property management company installed 95,000 sensors in the building on a Cisco network to track energy consumption.

By using analysis applications, the company was able to track energy consumption and help tenants reduce their electricity bills. This company also provided mobile devices to its building managers and employees of other facilities to improve collaboration and service to tenants.

The result was a 21% reduction in energy costs in 2012.

Relevant and timely information

Billions of M2M, M2P and P2P connections make the “everything” in IoT possible. The pillar of the processes takes advantage of the connections between the data, the objects and the people to provide the correct information to the object or to the person indicated at the right time. These billions of connections add value.

A drop of water is an excellent metaphor for IoT. A drop alone is not that important. However, when combined with millions or even billions of other drops, it can change the state of our planet. Like a drop of water, a single person, a bit of data or a single object connected to billions of other people, data and objects can modify the state of our planet.

To turn this metaphor into a real-world example of IoT, imagine how a tiny drop of water can initiate a chain reaction that produces a great result. Control systems send alerts of a sudden downpour with thunder. The sensors communicate with the networks. Networks communicate with traffic networks. Traffic networks communicate with energy systems. All operate in concert to protect people and preserve their quality of life.

Imagine the possibilities, How to connect what is not connected.

Internet of things (IdC) is about connecting what is not connected. It allows Internet access to objects that, historically, could not be accessed. With 50 billion devices connected by 2020, the world itself will “develop a nervous system” and will have the ability to detect the increasing amounts of data and respond to them. The Internet of everything can improve the quality of life of people anywhere by taking advantage of these connected objects and the data produced, and by incorporating new processes that allow people to make better decisions and create better offers.

Connecting objects for consumers

What effect does the connection of objects produce in our personal life? For example, consider the current structure of the average home network.

The home network is a LAN with devices that connect to the home router. Probably, the router also has wireless capability. In this case, the LAN provides wireless LAN (WLAN) access. In Figure 1, a typical home WLAN with an Internet connection is shown through a local Internet service provider (ISP). The customer at home cannot see the set of devices and connections within the ISP, but these are essential for Internet connectivity.

The local ISP connects to other ISPs, allowing access to websites and content from around the world. These ISPs are connected to each other by various technologies that include WAN technologies.

However, the M2M connection is a unique network type of IdC. Up shows a series of fire alarms or home security sensors that can communicate with each other and send data through the gateway router (home router) to a cloud server environment. Here you can accumulate and analyze the data.

Object connection for industries

Industrial applications in IdC require a degree of reliability and autonomy that is not so fundamental to the customer’s environment. Some industrial applications require operations and calculations that occur too quickly to depend on human intervention. For example, if a smartphone cannot remind us of an appointment, it is inconvenient. If the brake system of a large mining truck fails, this can produce catastrophic results for people and the organization.

The converging network and objects

As shown in the illustration, there are currently many objects connected by a dispersed set of independent and specific use networks. Consequently, they cannot be used in IoT.

For example, today’s cars have several exclusive networks to control engine operation, safety features and communication systems. The mere convergence of these systems in a common network would save more than 23 kg of cable in a modern four-door car.

Other examples are commercial and residential buildings, which have different control systems and networks for heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), telephone service, security and lighting. These different networks converge to share the same infrastructure, which includes comprehensive security, analysis and management capabilities. As the components connect to a converged network using IdC technologies, they become more powerful, since the full extent of IoT can take advantage and help people improve their quality of life.

Network access for currently unconnected objects

For objects with very few energy requirements to send information over the network, there are several short-range wireless communication protocols. In some cases, these protocols do not have IP enabled and must forward information to a device connected with IP enabled, such as a controller or gateway. For example, a device that does not use TCP / IP can communicate with another device that does not use this standard, such as the 802.15 standard of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE).

Intelligent traffic light systems

Consider the smart traffic light system as a good use of fog computing.
A smart traffic light system illustrates compatibility with real-time interactions. The system interacts locally with several sensors. The sensors detect the presence of pedestrians and cyclists, and measure the distance and speed of the approaching vehicles. The system also interacts with nearby traffic lights to synchronize them. According to this information, the intelligent traffic light sends warning signals to approaching vehicles and modifies its own cycle to prevent accidents.

Resynchronization with near intelligent traffic light systems in the fog allows any modification of the cycle. The data obtained by the intelligent traffic light system is processed locally for real-time analysis. For example, change the timing of cycles in response to road conditions. Cluster data from intelligent traffic light systems is sent to the cloud to analyze long-term traffic patterns.

End devices in Iot

As described above, end devices connect to the Internet and send data over the network. Cell phones, laptops, PCs, printers and IP phones are examples of end devices that use the Internet Protocol (IP). Currently, there are new types of end devices that obtain and transmit data, but use different protocols, such as IEEE 802.15 and NFC. These devices without IP enabled, such as the valves shown in the illustration, are fundamental facilitators of Iot.Sensores

In Iot, another type of device must be connected to the data network, called “sensor”. A sensor is an object that can be used to measure a physical property and convert that information into an electrical or optical signal. Examples of sensors include those that can detect heat, weight, movement, pressure and humidity.

Sensors are usually purchased with specific instructions previously programmed. However, some sensors can be configured to change the degree of sensitivity or the frequency of comments. The sensitivity setting indicates how much the sensor result changes when the measured amount changes. For example, motion sensors can be calibrated to detect the movement of people, but not pets. A controller, which can include a graphical user interface (GUI), is used to change the sensor configuration, locally or remotely.


Another device that is implemented in IdC is an actuator. An actuator is a basic motor that can be used to move or control a mechanism or system, based on a specific set of instructions. Actuators can perform a physical function to “make things happen.” One type of industrial actuator is an electric solenoid that is used to control hydraulic systems, such as the one shown in the illustration.

There are three types of actuators that are used in Iot:

Hydraulic: uses fluid pressure to perform mechanical movements.
Pneumatic: uses high pressure compressed air to allow mechanical operation.
Electric: it feeds on a motor that converts electrical energy into mechanical operation.

Beyond the way in which the actuator causes the movements, the basic function of this device is to receive a signal and, according to that signal, perform an established action. Generally, actuators cannot process data. Instead, the result of the action performed by the actuator is based on a received signal. The action performed by the actuator is usually generated from a signal from the controller.

Drivers in the fog

The sensors obtain data and forward that information to the controllers. The controller can forward the collected information from the sensors to other devices in the fog, as shown in the illustration.

Remember the example of the intelligent traffic light system. The sensors detect and report the activity to the controller. The controller can process this data locally and determine the optimal traffic patterns. With this information, the controller sends signals to the actuators at the traffic lights to adjust the traffic flows.
This is an example of M2M communication. In this situation, the sensors, the actuators and the controller coexist in the fog. That is, the information is not forwarded beyond the local network of the end devices.

Data processing in the fog is carried out in less traditional network environments. New places are created in the networks, or PINs, as more objects are connected to the network in various sectors. For field area networks (FAN), protected equipment is placed in adverse and exposed environments. The smart matrix is ​​an example of FAN

Drivers with IP enabled

The controller forwards the information through an IP network and allows people to access the controller remotely. In addition to forwarding the basic information in an M2M configuration, some controllers can perform more complex operations. Some controllers can consolidate the information of several sensors or perform a basic analysis of the received data.

Think in the situation of a warehouse, like the one shown in the illustration. The winery owner wishes to supervise the vineyard to determine the best time to harvest the grapes. The sensors can be used to obtain information about the physical aspects of the vineyard, such as weather, soil conditions and carbon dioxide levels. This information is forwarded to the controller. The controller sends a more complete picture of the information to a network server or over the Internet to a cloud-based service. The information gathered by the nodes of the sensors and the controller can be further analyzed, and can be accessed by mobile and remote devices.

In this situation, the controller obtains information from the sensors with the 802.15 ZigBee protocol. The controller consolidates the information received and forwards the data to the gateway through the TCP / IP protocol package.
Controllers, sensors and actuators contribute greatly to the expansion of objects that are connected in Iot.

Sensors with IP enabled

Some sensors and actuators support TCP / IP, which allows you to dispense with a controller.

The illustration shows sensors and actuators connected directly to the cloud through a gateway. In this example, the gateway performs the routing function necessary to provide Internet connectivity to devices with IP enabled. The data generated by these devices can be transported to a regional or global server to analyze and continue processing them.Función de los dispositivos de infraestructura de IdC

Infrastructure devices are primarily responsible for transporting data between controllers and other end devices, as shown in the illustration.
Infrastructure devices provide a variety of services, including the following:

Wireless and wired connectivity
Queuing of quality of service (for example, voice data before video data)
High availability
Secure transfer

Infrastructure devices connect individual end devices to the network and can connect several individual networks to form an internetwork. Data management as they flow in the network is one of the main functions of infrastructure devices, or intermediaries. These devices use the address of the final destination device, in conjunction with information about the network interconnections, to determine the route that messages should take through the network.


As discussed in the previous section, sensors and actuators are widely used in Iot. The sensors measure a physical property and forward that information through the network. How do the sensors recognize what information to capture or with which controller to communicate?

The actuators perform actions based on a received signal. How does the actuator recognize the action to be performed or the signals that are required to give rise to that action?

Sensors should be informed what to capture and where to send the data. A controller with a set of instructions must be programmed to receive that data and decide whether it is processed and transmitted to another device. For example, final Iot devices, such as the computer installed in a car, must be programmed to react to different traffic conditions. All devices must be programmed in Iot, so programming skills are essential to achieve the success of Iot.

Definition of basic programming

What is a program?
A computer program is a set of instructions given to a computer to run in a specific order. Since computers do not communicate in human languages, computer programming languages ​​were created. These languages ​​allow human beings to write instructions so that computers can understand them. While there are several different computer languages, they are all based on logical structures.

IF the condition is met, THEN follow the instructions (If / Then): this is one of the most common programming structures. It is used to enter the execution of the conditional code. The set of instructions that follow the THEN keyword is only executed if the given condition is true. If the condition is false, the instructions are never executed. For example, IF password = 12345, THEN show “correct password”. The above code only shows the message “correct password” if the password 12345 is entered.

FOR the DO expression follow the instructions (For / Do): this logical structure is used to create controlled loops. The instruction set is executed the number of times defined in the expression. When the expression is no longer fulfilled, the loop ends, and the computer proceeds to the next instruction. For example, FOR quantity <= 10 DO show “Not yet reached 10”. The program checks the value of the variable called “quantity”. While the amount is less than or equal to 10, the message “Not yet reached 10” is displayed on the screen. As soon as the amount exceeds 10, the structure is abandoned, and the computer goes to the next line of code.

  • WHILE the condition is met, DO follow the instructions (While / Do): the WHILE logical structure is also used to create controlled loops, but in a different way. WHILE executes the instructions as long as the condition is true. When the condition is no longer true, the structure is abandoned, and the computer goes to the next line of code. For example, WHILE temperature sensor> 26DO show “The temperature is too high” on the screen. The message “The temperature is too high” is displayed several times until the temperature sensor value is less than or equal to 26.
  • Logical conditions like these are the basic components of computer programs.

The Cisco Coffee JavaScript application

The illustration shows a simulated version of the Cisco Coffee JavaScript application currently running in your browser. If you click Show real data, you see a status message that says “No sensors found.” This is because there are no real sensors connected to the application. The application generates data from dummy sensors. While the entire code exceeds the scope of this course, you can open the file and analyze it on your own to determine how much you understand.

M2P connections

People play an important role in harnessing the digital intelligence obtained by M2M connections. The resulting M2P connections are essential for making optimal decisions.

For example, portable sensors and monitors can provide information on a patient’s vital signs 24 hours a day, however health professionals are primarily responsible for using that information to evaluate patients and treat them.
M2P connections mean that people can send information to technical systems and receive information from them. M2P connections are transactional, which means that the flow of information is transmitted in both directions, from machines to people and vice versa. The M2M and P2P connections are also transactional.

M2P technologies can vary from automated customer notification systems with predefined triggers, to advanced dashboards that help visualize analysis. It is also possible to perform more complex M2P operations, such as examining and analyzing the data received and determining how to present the information to decision makers.

In addition to improving efficiency, IoT provides security benefits. For example, thanks to sensors located on the ground and in the miners, it is possible to detect danger signals before an accident occurs. The vibrations in the ground and in the rocks or the changes in the human vital signs, can immediately generate M2M or M2P interactions in real time that save goods, investments and lives.

M2P interactions in IoT solutions

Below are examples of the effect that M2P connections can have on the retail, manufacturing, public sector and service providers sectors.

Interaction between M2M, M2P and P2P to create solutions

The implementation of an IoT solution through M2M, M2P and P2P connections provides useful information and automation without inconvenience to organizations and individuals.

For example, consider how a company that sells purple metallic phone cases could benefit from these interactions if there is a sudden peak in demand. By means of the analytical, first the indications of this tendency for that product and color in the social media are collected. This company predicts the change in demand. The M2M, M2P and P2P connections can immediately alert factories and suppliers to increase the production of this purple metallic phone case.

Thanks to the convergence of IT and TO, all aspects of the supply chain are connected. Through wireless sensors and network-connected mobility, companies can immediately visualize all aspects of the product cycle, from the initial interest of consumers to post-purchase comments:

  • Consumer interest based on payment process information, carts and shelves, and post-purchase comments.
  • The inventory according to the information of the loading docks, merchandise shelves and warehouses.
  • Logistics according to truck and train information.
  • Production according to factory plant and machine informationHaga clic en cada imagen en orden numérico para ver cómo puede producirse la interacción de los dispositivos y las personas en esta situación.

With IoT, there is the possibility of connecting to mines and drilling operations, where raw materials are extracted from the soil. These mines, which constitute the beginning of the production value chain, illustrate the value of IoT, especially its ability to provide predictive information.

Understanding of existing business processes

The implementation of a commercial model enabled for IoT can improve the operations of the company, reduce costs and allow more effective marketing strategies. But how can an organization implement new IoT solutions without interrupting current operations?
One of the first steps that business managers must follow is to understand their current processes. They must identify the following:

  • Who are your suppliers and customers?
  • What are the needs of the customers?
  • What is the program and the steps of the process to create and deliver an offer
  • For example, as a manager or distributor of supplies, it is important to understand when an item will be received in relation to the expiration dates of those same products. Click Play to see the feedback cycle of the supply chain for banana crops.

Understanding of existing IT and TO networks

In addition to understanding business processes, organizations that implement an IoT solution must take into account the operations and infrastructure of existing IT and TO networks.

Business managers must understand how users of IT networks interact with network services and resources, and gather information about all internal and external access to existing network infrastructure. If you do not have full knowledge of who access the network and how it is used, the desired solution may not include some user requirements or identify user groups incorrectly. Other considerations include the identification of existing network and infrastructure components, and capabilities, including compatibility with traffic requirements, data storage and security needs.

In addition to understanding IT network operations, business managers must also take into account the way networks of current TO systems work. This includes knowing the way in which M2M connections are currently produced, the information that is generated from these connections and the way in which this information is integrated into current business processes. They must also identify connectivity requirements, such as the use of exclusive protocols.

Process connection

The process pillar describes the way in which people, data and objects interact with each other to provide social benefits and economic value. By connecting what is not connected, we can visualize new processes, which provides opportunities to create more efficient and effective interactions. Cisco works with major retailers to use a combination of sensors, video and analysis to improve store productivity and customer experience.

In addition to understanding IT network operations, business managers must also take into account the way networks of current TO systems work. This includes knowing the way in which M2M connections are currently produced, the information that is generated from these connections and the way in which this information is integrated into current business processes. They must also identify connectivity requirements, such as the use of exclusive protocols.

IoT in retail

When the transition to an IoT model is made, retailers have the opportunity to create new and better connections in their stores, corporate offices, distribution centers and other environments.

IoT in the manufacturing sector

Before IoT, manufacturers had little contact with customers, and obtaining customer opinions about the products took a long time. IT and TO operations were also separate.
With IoT, products and services can include integrated sensors that provide constant feedback and feedback to manufacturers. IT and TO operations converge.

IoT in the public sector

Creating new and better connections and obtaining information on assets can generate significant dividends for governments.
Click on each of the IoT categories in the illustration to see more examples of the use of IoT in the public sector.

IoT for service providers

IoT opens up immense possibilities for service providers to earn money with their network. Service providers already have extensive networks that provide mobile, video, collaboration and other offers to individual subscribers and businesses of all sizes. Now they can integrate many types of IoT connections to provide a wide variety of new services.

Problems related to mass data

The exponential growth of the data continues as the number of objects connected to the Internet increases. However, a greater amount of data is not necessarily a positive thing if it cannot be accessed, analyzed and applied in a usable manner. For data to be a true asset, they must be used effectively. In addition, the use of old and inaccurate data constitutes a waste of time, resources and money.
Managing this larger amount of data poses many challenges, including the following:

  • Broadband capacity in existing links connected to data centers.
  • Concerns regarding the privacy of user data
  • Data management for real-time communications.
  • Selection and analysis of appropriate data

The information obtained from the massive data will increase customer participation, improve operations and identify new sources of value. However, the growing demands of mass data require new technologies and processes for data centers and data analysis.Necesidad de seguridad adicional

The increase in connected devices and the amount of data they generate increases the security demand for that data.

Computer attacks occur daily, and it seems that no organization is immune to them. Given the ease of stealing information and misuse it in today’s connected world, it is logical to worry about this problem as people, processes, data and objects connect in IoT. For example, in the following video, Dr. Kathleen Fisher of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) describes how a hacker could control the operation of a car remotely: DARPA and Car Hacking (DARPA and computer attacks on cars).

Personal data and IoT

Organizations can obtain all types of personal data; However, there is a legal and ethical struggle between access and privacy. Data blocks are enhanced with metadata that includes information about where the data was created, who created it and where they are going. In this way, the data becomes property that can be exchanged. This change allows personal information to be audited to apply policies and laws when problems arise.

The definition of personal data, however, evolves. It is possible that what one person considers personal data may not be for another. For example, a patient with cancer and a healthy patient may have very different ideas regarding the type of medical information they want to keep confidential. Click on each of the images to get more information about the types of data that are currently considered personal data.

M2P interactions

In the cellar model, a simple M2P interaction encompasses the equipment used during harvest. Centrifuges are used to extract juice and desirable skins, and leave impurities. Because centrifuges are somewhat small and cannot accept too much material at once, time management of trucks arriving from the field loaded with grapes is essential. When the grapes remain in the truck for too long, their quality is affected. When the centrifuge ends with a batch, you can send a signal to the truck driver that indicates that it is ready to receive another. This M2P interaction prevents trucks from waiting idle and delivers the grapes to the centrifuge at the right time.

The following are some additional examples of how M2P interactions help improve the winemaking process in the cellar model::

  • The controllers interact with the servers, the servers apply analysis tools, and then a notification is sent to the winemaker to indicate specific actions, such as the ideal time to prune the vines or to harvest the grapes.
  • The nitrogen, temperature and soil moisture sensors tell the vineyard supervisor that they should fertilize an area due to lack of nutrients.
  • In Figure 1, a floor sensor is shown air temperature and humidity sensors tell the vineyard supervisor the optimal time to harvest the grapes..

P2P interactions

The following are some of the P2P interactions that occur in the warehouse model:

  • From the vineyard supervisor to the winemaker: the vineyard supervisor consults with the winemaker about the best time to prune or harvest.
  • From the winemaker to the field workers: the winemaker collaborates with the field workers to inform them when to prune the plants and when to harvest the grapes, and which ones.
  • From the supervisor of the processing plant to the winemaker: the supervisor of the processing plant controls the systems that operate the pressing and fermentation process.
  • From the winemaker to the general public through social networks: the winemaker can reach a wide audience to inform you what type of wine is available and the details of the variety.
  • From the winemaker to other winemakers or other vineyard supervisors: the winemaker collaborates with other winemakers in the region to help meet the demands or to meet new grape varieties.

Analysis tools

There is a large amount of data created in IoT. To apply this data to processes, people use analytical software. Analytical software ranges from simple tools such as spreadsheets to determine statistics for a specific range of data, to sophisticated sets of commercial software. The software can be created and sold by a large organization, it can be developed independently and provided in open source media, or it can be designed by the company that uses it for a specific purpose.

The analysis was once a method to forecast the supply according to the quantity of units sold in a given period. The analysis in IoT advanced to address many new business aspects. Some of the following types of analysis are used to determine how a company works:

  • Descriptive: uses historical data to create reports designed to facilitate understanding.
  • Predictive: uses mining and data modeling techniques to determine what happens next.
  • Prescriptive: use simulations, business rules and machine learning to recommend a course of action and indicate what the result of that action may be.

In the winery model, the winemaker uses analyzes of all kinds to improve the quality of the wine.

Supply Chain Analysis

In the winery model, IoT technology improves the wine supply chain by offering end-to-end monitoring from the vineyard to the wine glass. The sensors in the soil and air of the vineyard, combined with logic programs in the controllers, automate many processes to grow the ideal grapes. In production facilities, each area uses several sensors to gather temperature, humidity and sugar levels. The distribution data can be monitored in real time to warn drivers and other people about the condition of the wine during transport, as shown in the illustration.

Products can be marked with quick response codes (QR) during the packing stage. Production personnel, buyers or consumers can examine the QR code to ensure origin and quality. It is possible to associate a specific bottle with all sensor, production and shipping data, which provides the story from end to end on how the grapes reached the glass.

Jobs in the IT industry for IoT

IoT generates demand for a broad spectrum of IT jobs. These opportunities may be specific to fog computing, the development of new processes or a specialization in a discipline that has not yet been completed. These works reflect skills that span various disciplines that include computer science, computer engineering (a combination of computer science and electrical engineering) and software engineering, in the following areas:

  • Collaboration
  • Business networks
  • Data center and virtualization